J Bone Jt Infect 2019; 4(5):209-215. doi:10.7150/jbji.38120

Research Paper

Bone and Joint Infections among Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Cybele Lara Abad1, Vania Phuoc2, Prashant Kapoor3, Pritish K. Tosh4, Irene G. Sia4, Douglas R. Osmon4, Aaron J. Tande4✉

1. Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippine General Hospital, Manila Philippines;
2. Division of Hematology, University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippine General Hospital, Manila Philippines;
3. Division of Infectious Diseases, University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippine General Hospital, Manila Philippines;
4. Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USA.

Abstract

Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk for infection. This study describes bone and joint infections (BJI) among HSCT recipients.

Methods: We reviewed 5861 patients who underwent HSCT at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from January 1, 2005 through January 1, 2015 for study inclusion. BJI was defined as native septic arthritis, prosthetic joint infection, osteomyelitis, and orthopedic implant infection. All adults with BJI after HSCT were included in the analysis.

Results: Of 5861 patients, 33 (0.6%) developed BJI. Native joint septic arthritis was the most common BJI occurring in 15/33 (45.4%) patients. Patients were predominantly male (24/33, 72.7%), with median age of 58 (range 20-72) years. BJI was diagnosed a median of 39 (range 1-114) months after allogeneic (14/33, 42.4%) or autologous (19/33, 57.6%) HSCT. Organisms were recovered via tissue (24/27, 88.9%), synovial fluid (13/17, 76.5%), and/or blood cultures (16/25, 64%). Most underwent surgical debridement (23/33, 69.7%). Patients were followed a median of 78.3 months (range 74-119). Therapy was unsuccessful in 4/33 (12.1%), with death related to the underlying BJI in two (50%). Failure occurred a median of 3.4 (0.1-48.5) months from diagnosis. At last follow up, 7/33 (21.2%) patients were alive. Median overall survival was 13 months (0.07-70.6).

Conclusion: BJI among HSCT recipients is infrequent. The most common infection is native joint septic arthritis. Pathogens appear similar to patients without HSCT. Treatment involving surgical-medical modalities is successful, with most patients surviving >1 year after BJI.

Keywords: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, bone, joint

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How to cite this article:
Abad CL, Phuoc V, Kapoor P, Tosh PK, Sia IG, Osmon DR, Tande AJ. Bone and Joint Infections among Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients. J Bone Jt Infect 2019; 4(5):209-215. doi:10.7150/jbji.38120. Available from http://www.jbji.net/v04p0209.htm